A Comprehensive CFD Model for Dual-Phase Brass Indirect Extrusion Based on Constitutive Laws

A Comprehensive CFD Model for Dual-Phase Brass Indirect Extrusion Based on Constitutive Laws: Assessment of Hot-Zone Formation and Failure Prognosis, Metals 2018, 8, 1043; doi:10.3390/met8121043
George Pashos, George A. Pantazopoulos, Ioannis Contopoulos
A numerical method for the precise calculation of temperature, velocity and pressure profiles of the α-β brass indirect hot extrusion process is presented. The method solves the Navier–Stokes equations for non-Newtonian liquids with strain-rate and temperature-dependent viscosity that is formulated using established constitutive laws based on the Zener–Hollomon type equation for plastic flow stress. The method can be implemented with standard computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, has relatively low computational cost, and avoids the numerical artifacts associated with other methods commonly used for such processes. A response surface technique is also implemented, and it is thus possible to build a reduced order model that approximately maps the process with respect to all combinations of its parameters, including the extrusion speed and brass phase constitution. The reduced order model can be a very useful tool for production, because it instantaneously provides important quantities, such as the average pressure or the temperature of hot-spots that are formed due to the combined effect of die/billet friction and the generation of heat from plastic deformation (adiabatic shear deformation heating). This approach can assist in the preliminary evaluation of the metal flow pattern, and in the prediction and prevention of critical extrusion failures, thus leading to subsequent process and product quality improvements.
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