Metallographic Study of Great Anthony Historical Bronze Bells of Apostle Andrew Skete in Mount Athos, Greece, Metallography, Microstructure, and Analysis, Vol. 6(4) (2017), pp. 340-351.
In the present study, a comprehensive microstructural analysis of the fractured bells
of Great Anthony Church of Saint Andrew Skete of Mount Athos, a significant
monument of Orthodox tradition and Cultural heritage, was performed. The bronze
alloy chemical composition together with metallographic examination, scanning
electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy toward the
identification of the phases and other micro-constituents and discontinuities present
in the internal structure was documented and illustrated in conjunction with the
applied bell manufacturing process. Tin bronze alloy was used for bell making, with a
chemical composition (up to 18% Sn as a main alloying element) signifying most
likely that the bell was produced at the Empire era. The as-cast microstructure
primarily consisted of α-dendrites and α+δ interdendritic eutectoid mixture with Pb
globules and scattered porosity. Furthermore, electron backscattered diffraction
analysis was conducted in order to determine texture properties and obtain
crystallographic information regarding the bells’ cast structure.